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什么是纽约房地产交易中的尾项清单(Punch List)?





【摘要】在纽约的房地产交易中,当买方从开发商手中购买一手房时,时常会在房屋验收中听到一个词:Punch List(尾项清单)或Inspection Statement(检查声明)。那么,什么是尾项清单(Punch List)?它又有什么作用呢?本文将会一一讲解。


一、什么是尾项清单(Punch List)?


在一手房交付前,买方连同买方经纪人,会一同前往购买的房屋处,进行最终验收(Final Walkthrough),确保房屋状态良好,可以进行交付。如果买方发现了房屋存在破损、未完工等情形,买方可以把在验收中发现的,希望开发商对房屋进行改善或维修的地方列成清单,这张清单便是尾项清单(Punch List)。


二、每个一手房交易都会有尾项清单(Punch List)吗?


并非每个一手房交易中都会有尾项清单(Punch List)。买方律师在审阅合同时应当注意是否有尾项清单(Punch List)或检查声明(Inspection Statement)条款。如果合同中没有规定尾项清单(Punch List)或检查声明(Inspection Statement)条款,买方律师需及时告知客户其中的利弊。


为了让大家更清晰地理解尾项清单(Punch List)或检查声明(Inspection Statement)条款,我们摘抄以下3个合同条款以作解释:


合同样本条款一


原文

Purchaser shall carefully inspect the Unit prior to the closing of title and shall execute at such time an inspection statement acknowledging Purchaser’s acceptance of the Unit in good condition and in accordance with the terms of the Plan. However, if Purchaser finds that Sponsor’s improvements have not been completed, although such improvements have been substantially completed, then Sponsor and Purchaser will agree to include on the inspection statement a list of incomplete work of a material nature to be completed in the Unit by Sponsor following the closing of title, but all such obligations to complete work in the Unit shall cease once the work has been completed.


中文翻译

买方应在过户前仔细检查该房屋状况,并在当时签署一份检查声明(Inspection Statement),确认该单元状况良好且符合说明书相关条款(Offering Plan)。开发商和买方,也会在检查声明(Inspection Statement)中,列入开发商未完成的工作,并约定开发商在过户后完成上述未完成的事项。一旦上述工作项目完成,开发商对该房屋的所有施工义务便终止。


合同样本条款二


原文

Purchaser shall arrange an appointment with a representative of Sponsor to inspect the interior of the Unit within the 7 days prior to the Closing Date. ... Only Purchaser or Purchaser’s duly authorized agent shall be entitled to attend such inspection, who shall complete, date and sign the Inspection Statement (in the form set forth as Schedule B to this Agreement) and deliver same to Sponsor’s representative at the conclusion of the inspection, and in no event shall the inspection exceed two (2) hours in duration.


Any work set forth on the Inspection Statement shall be completed by Sponsor as agreed in writing and shall not be grounds for delaying the Closing. Purchaser will be obligated to provide Sponsor and its contractors, subcontractors agents and employees, unfettered access to the Unit and any Residential Limited Common Elements appurtenant thereto after Closing in order to complete the work on the Inspection Statement, failing which Sponsor shall be relieved of its obligations to complete the work set forth on the Inspection Statement.


中文翻译

买方应在过户日前的7天内与开发商代表一起验收房屋。只有买方或买方授权的代理人才可参与检查,检查后买方应填写检查声明(Inspection Statement),注明日期并签名后交给开发商代表(按照本协议附表B的格式)。检查时间不得超过两小时。


检查声明(Inspection Statement)上的任何工作都应由开发商按照声明中约定的内容完成,且不应成为迟延过户的理由。买方有义务让开发商及其承包商、分包商、代理人和雇员在过户后不受限制地进入该房屋及其附属的任何住宅中有限的公共部分,以完成检查声明(Inspection Statement)上的工作,否则开发商将被免除完成检查声明(Inspection Statement)上的工作的义务。


值得注意的是,一些一手房交易中并没有规定尾项清单(Punch List),而是约定以房屋现状(As Is)出售。


合同样本条款三


原文

Purchaser acknowledges having inspected the Unit prior to signing this Agreement. Purchaser understands that neither the Condominium nor Sponsor have any obligation to make any repairs, improvements or decorations in or to the Property, the Building or the Unit, except as may otherwise be set forth in the Plan.


中文翻译

买方确认在签署本协议之前已经检查了该房屋。买方认可,无论是房屋管理方还是开发商,都没有义务对该房屋、该建筑或该单元进行任何维修、改善或装饰,除非计划书中另有规定。


曾律师提醒:在购房合同中应尽量纳入尾项清单(Punch List)或检查声明(Inspection Statement)条款,并明确规定开发商完成尾项清单(Punch List),从而最大化地保护买家利益。


三、尾项清单(Punch List) 的内容


通常情况下,由开发商或总承包商认可的尾项清单(Punch List)才能被执行,因此买方列入尾项清单(Punch List)中的项目应当是合理的。


合理的尾项清单(Punch List)项目一般有:

  • 重新粉刷有刮痕或污垢的墙面;

  • 更换开裂的大理石台面;

  • 更换生锈的水具;

  • 橱柜柜门不整齐,需要重新安装;

不合理的尾项清单(Punch List)项目一般有:

  • 要求更换成符合买方个人喜好的淋浴设备;

  • 要求额外增加橱柜上的装饰。

四、尾项清单(Punch List)为什么在一手房交易的验收中如此重要?


尾项清单(Punch List)可以令开发商在房屋过户后仍对房屋遗留的问题负责,使房屋恢复到最良好的状态。尾项清单(Punch List)明晰了一手房交易验收中开发商未尽的责任范围,维持或改善了房屋状态,保护了买方的权利。



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曾晖律师简介:


曾晖律师是Zeng Law Group, PLLC (纽约锦晖律师事务所)的高级合伙人。曾律师连续四年(2017、2018、2019和2020)被美国路透社(Thomson Reuters)超级律师杂志 Super Lawyers评为 Rising Star。在美国执业律师中,仅有2.5%左右的律师能获得此荣誉。曾律师也被 Crain’s New York 杂志评选为2018 Leading Women Lawyers in NYC (纽约市前100杰出女性律师)。


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